Professor Dr Zavos

Professor, Dr. Zavos, Director of the International Institute for Gender Selection

Male Fertility Evaluation


Routine Semen Analysis

Anyone who is having trouble conceiving should have a semen analysis done. In about 40% of infertile couples, the cause of the infertility lies with the males, and this could easily and quickly be diagnosed via a semen analysis.

Strict Sperm Morphology Evaluation

Normal sperm morphology has been shown to be predictive of IVF outcome/success. The AIA evaluates normal sperm morphology using either or both WHO standards and also strict criteria methodologies. The strict criteria is based on the shape and appearance of post-coital sperm found in the internal os. Basically, the sperm should have a smooth oval head, with no defects in the neck or tail regions. The percentage of normal sperm assessed using this method has been shown to correlate with other sperm functions such as sperm motility, binding to the egg investments and subsequent fertilization (3,4). Normal values should be greater than 14% normal sperm.

Isolation of High Quality Sperm using SpermPrep™ and other technologies

In order for fertilization to occur, high quality, motile spermatozoa need to be separated from the seminal specimen. Since there is great diversity in semen profiles, especially among infertile men, here at AIA, each specimen undergoes a special "tailor-made" procedure to isolate the best sperm for ART and IUI. For this purpose, we have developed numerous innovative techniques depending on the quality of the specimen. Among these are the SpermPrep I and II columns, the ZSC I, ZSC-II and Multi-ZSC technologies, all developed by our very own Research and Development Program at AIA (5,6,7). For more information on these products, please visit

Sperm Longevity Testing

The duration of sperm motility and overall physical activity is also an important indicator of sperm function and vitality. This is tested to ensure that sperm do not "die off" after a certain period of time.

Hypo-Osmotic Swelling Testing

HOS-test is used to test the integrity of the sperm cell membrane using the principle of osmotic differences. When normal sperm are placed in a hypoosmotic solution, water moves across the cell membrane into the sperm cell causing it to swell. If the membrane is damaged, then this transport of water will not occur and no swelling will take place. Thus, the percentage of swollen spermatozoa is the measure of intact membranes and hence sperm viability and fecundity (8,9).

Anti-sperm Antibody Testing

These are antibodies produced by the immune system that mistake sperm for invading substances and begin to attack them. The presence of anti-sperm antibodies has been shown to cause immobilization and agglutination of sperm, thereby preventing sperm from reaching the oocyte (10). Anti-sperm antibodies can be detected in serum, seminal plasma, cervical mucus and other reproductive tract fluids (tubal, follicular, uterine). It is estimated that 5-10% of male infertility is caused by antisperm antibodies and 10-15% of women with unexplained infertility have circulating sperm antibodies in their system.

Isolation and Selection of Round Spermatids for ICSI

Round spermatids are immature sperm cells which can be used for injection directly into the oocyte via ICSI. Usually this is the method of choice when there are no sperm present in the testis or epididymis. We offer a Hyper-osmotic Shrinkage Test (HYOS-test), that we developed at AIA, to identify and select round spermatids with intact membranes, for microinjection via ICSI (14).

For semen collection we recommend the use of the ZSCD.


The newest and most advanced product for semen collection at intercourse. To order, please visit our distribution site, ZDL, Inc.



Our Vision


General Disclaimer

This site and all information, materials, content and products therein are provided on an "as-is" basis without warranties of any kind, either express or implied. You expressly agree that use of this site, including all content, data or software distributed by, downloaded or accessed from or through this site, is at your sole risk. Gender Selection disclaims all warranties, express or implied, including, but not limited to, implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title, and non-infringement as to the information, materials, content, software and products on the site (all "site content").


Follow us on facebook

Copyright © 2009 The International Institute for Gender Selection

This Web Site Wholly Owned and Operated by ZDL, Inc. & Dr. Panayiotis Zavos
181 Southland Drive • Lexington, Ky • 40503, USA
Phone 859-278-6806; Fax 859-278-6906